As a result of the riot in Baltimore and pro-Southern sympathies of much of the city’s populace, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company also declined the same day a Federal government request to transport Union forces to relieve the beleaguered Union naval yard facility at Portsmouth, Virginia. The Baltimore Riots happened April 19, 1861. Attack on the Massachusetts 6th at Baltimore, April 19, 1861 Summary Men fighting with guns, clubs, stones, etc. entered the city and built earthworks on Federal Hill. Four soldiers (Corporal Sumner Needham of Co I and Privates Luther C. Ladd, Charles Taylor, and Addison Whitney of Company D) and twelve civilians were killed in the riot. Coincidentally, it was about the same time that the alarm bell had been rung in Concord, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 warning of… Topic. Rioters, soldiers, and innocent bystanders fell dead and wounded. April 19, 2018 by DickH Posted in History 2 Comments Mural of Baltimore Riot of Apr 19, 1861 at Massachusetts State House. Just before daybreak on June 27, soldiers marched from Ft. McHenry on orders from Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, who had succeeded Cadwalader as commander of the Department of Annapolis, and arrested Marshal George P. Kane. There were calls for Maryland to declare secession in the wake of the riot. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the American Civil War. But that night, the Pennsylvania troops, later known as “The First Defenders” camped at the U.S. Capitol under the uncompleted dome, which was under construction. The poem was later set to “Lauriger Horatius”, the tune of O Tannenbaum, a melody popular in the South, and referred to the riots with lines such as “Avenge the patriotic gore / That flecked the streets of Baltimore.” It was not until seventy-eight years later that it became Maryland’s state song; there have been efforts to remove it since. Baltimore riot of 1861. Mayor Brown and Maryland Governor Hicks implored President Lincoln to send no further troops through Maryland to avoid further confrontations. Baltimore quickly felt the effects of the riot. Finally, in June, 1861, Maryland voted on secession. April 19, 1861: The Baltimore Riot. — ADavidB 05:40, 14 July 2012 (UTC) Ah, but a great many of these hits come up due to the title of the Wikipedia article! Many sympathized passionately with the Southern cause. Background At 1 a.m. on April 19, 1861, the men of the 6th Massachusetts Volunteer Militia were asleep on the floors of the Girard House Hotel in Philadelphia when the long roll sounded. Baltimore riot of 1861. New militia units from several Northern states were starting to transport themselves south, particularly to protect Washington, D.C., from the new Confederate threat in Virginia. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the "Pratt Street Riots" and the "Pratt Street Massacre") was a civil conflict on Friday, April 19, 1861, on Pratt Street, in Baltimore, Maryland. At this time the legislature seems to have wanted to maintain Maryland’s neutrality in the conflict. Secessionist sympathy was strong in Baltimore, a border state metropolis. Civilians who had demonstrated secessionist sympathies were arrested and taken to Fort McHenry, where they were held without charge. The Baltimore Riot of 1861 . Major Morris, the commanding officer at Fort McHenry, suspended the Habeas Corpus privleges of those prisoners. The 8th Massachusetts, with the 7th New York, proceeded to Annapolis Junction (halfway between Baltimore and Washington), and the 7th New York went on to Washington, where, on the afternoon of April 25, they became the first troops to reach the capital by this route. On April 19, 1861 in Baltimore, Maryland the Baltimore Riot of 1861 also known at the Pratt Street Riot or the Pratt Street Massacre occurred. Since Annapolis, the capital, was occupied by Federal troops, and Baltimore was harboring many pro-Confederate mobs, Hicks directed the legislature to meet in Frederick, in the predominantly Unionist western part of the state. The frightened officers ordered the troops to fire into the crowd. This incident, between members of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry traveling through Baltimore to Washington, D.C., and Southern sympathizers, is considered by many to be the … In Brown’s later assessment, it was the Baltimore riot that pushed the two sides over the edge into full-scale war, “because then was shed the first blood in a conflict between the North and the South; then a step was taken which made compromise or retreat almost impossible; then passions on both sides were aroused which could not be controlled”. It is regarded by historians as the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. 21230. The participants were Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts Militia who were en route to Washington, D.C. to report for federal service. On July 10, George R. Dodge, a civilian, was appointed as marshal of police. However, the mob followed the soldiers, breaking store windows and causing damage until they finally blocked the soldiers. However, in sources contemporaneous with Supporters of secession and slavery organized themselves into a force called “National Volunteers” while unionists and abolitionists called themselves “Minute Men.”. Maryland, My Maryland! The Civil War's First DeadWith 12 Baltimoreans Killed In The Bloody Pratt Street Riot The most significant action of the Civil War may have occurred in Baltimore on 19 April 1861 during the Pratt Street Riots, which directly caused 17 known deaths and at … The regiment had left behind much of their equipment, including their marching band’s instruments. The publisher, William Schnauffer, and the editor, Wilhelm Rapp, whose lives were threatened, were compelled to leave town. Following are telegraph dispatches regarding the Baltimore Riot, also known as the Pratt Street Riot, of April 19th, 1861, as reported in the April 24, 1861, issue of The Hudson North Star. While there may have been accidents, and maybe a secessionist shot or two during their tour, wounding men of the 6th, the majority of the casualties occurred in the Riot. Butler intimated that armed men were not always limited to the necessity of purchasing food when famished.”. The 6th Massachusetts Infantry arrived at the President Street Station and began the process of changing trains. Governor Hicks called a special session of the state legislature to consider the situation. Some Southerners reacted with passion to the incident. The status of Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky (later known as “border states”), remained unknown. Because of an ordinance preventing the construction of steam rail lines through the city, there was no direct rail connection between the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad’s President Street Station and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s Camden Station (ten blocks to the west). I certainly regard it as sufficient legal cause for suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.” Moreover, Morris wrote, “If, in an experience of thirty-three years, you have never before known the writ to be disobeyed, it is only because such a contingency in political affairs as the present has never before arisen.”. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland, between anti-War Democrats (the largest party in Maryland), as well as Confederate sympathizers, and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to Washington for Federal service. At the time, the slave states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas had not yet seceded from the U.S. Union Protestant Infirmary (now MedStar Union Memorial Hospital) established. Banks appointed Colonel John Reese Kenly of the 1st Regiment Maryland Volunteer Infantry as provost marshal to superintend the Baltimore police; Kenly enrolled, organized, and armed 250 Unionists for a new police. On September 17, 1861, the day the legislature reconvened to discuss these later events and Lincoln’s possibly unconstitutional actions, twenty-seven state legislators (one-third of the Maryland General Assembly) were arrested and jailed by federal troops, using Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus, and in further defiance of the U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice’s ex parte Merryman ruling. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the … Their discontent increased in the days afterward when Lincoln put out a call for volunteers to serve 90 days and end the insurrection. The Mayor bravely attempted to stop the battle without success. The Baltimore riot of 1968 was a period of civil unrest that lasted from April 6 to April 14, 1968, in Baltimore.The uprising included crowds filling the streets, burning and looting local businesses, and confronting the police and national guard. Baltimore fell under military rule. Maryland! 1855. After the April 19 riot, some small skirmishes occurred throughout Baltimore between citizens and police for the next month, but a sense of normalcy returned as the city was cleaned up. 1854. Lincoln subsequently had the mayor, police chief, entire Board of Police, and the city council of Baltimore imprisoned without charges, as well as one sitting U.S. These troops were to be transported to Washington, D.C. so that they might protect the Capitol. At this time, the most efficient means to transport such large numbers of men was by rail, and the only routes to Washington passed through Baltimore. This angered the mob further, and they began to attack the soldiers with considerable ferocity. Sympathetic Marylanders, who had supported secession ever since John C. Calhoun spoke of nullification, agitated to join Virginia in leaving the Union. They were joined by several regiments of regular United States Army troops under John C. Pemberton (later the Confederate general and commander at the siege of Vicksburg in Mississippi whose surrender in July 1863, resulted in the first split of the Confederacy) returning from duty on the western frontier. When a threat was made against Fort McHenry, one of the militia units was sent to help the U.S. Army defend it. When it became apparent that they could travel by horse no further, the troops got out of the cars and marched in formation through the city. Virginia’s secession was particularly significant due to the state’s industrial capacity. Baltimore, April 19, 1861, 10:00AM. His torch is at thy temple door, “The people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops,” Brown wrote, “and the citizens are universally decided in the opinion that no more should be ordered to come. Baltimore, MD Then the police arrived. A man supposed to be a Maryland State Militia soldier was detained in Ft. McHenry, and Judge Giles, in Baltimore, issued a writ of habeas corpus, but Major W. W. Morris, commander of the fort, wrote back, “At the date of issuing your writ, and for two weeks previous, the city which you live, and where your court has been held, was entirely under the control of revolutionary authorities. National Park Service. According to his later report, Jones went through the railroad cars and gave this order: Indeed, as the militia regiment transferred between stations, a mob of anti-War supporters and Southern sympathizers attacked the train cars and blocked the route. The mob attacked the rear companies of the regiment with “bricks, paving stones, and pistols.” In response, several soldiers fired into the mob, beginning a giant brawl between the soldiers, the mob, and the Baltimore police. Also known as the Pratt Street Riot, only one week had passed since the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter.. Maryland and nearby Delaware were border states.These were the states exposed to Northern influences and culture, but with a Southern exposure too —and numerous Confederate sympathizers. Maryland, My Maryland. A Google search of "Baltimore riot of 1861" shows me 123,000 results, while "Pratt Street riot" gives 79,800. 1854-1859. On April 19, the unit headed on to Baltimore, where they anticipated a slow transit through the city. Following the secession of the southern States and the bombardment of Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 men to be raised from the militia of the states in order to put down the rebellion. Baltimore, Carroll, and Frederick Railroad organized, later became Western Maryland Railroad. Result:Confederate sympathisers ultimately suppressed. On April 18, 460 newly mustered Pennsylvania volunteers (generally from the Pottsville, Pennsylvania area) arrived from Harrisburg on the Northern Central Railway at the Bolton Street Station off North Howard Street (present site of the later Fifth Regiment Armory). The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland, between anti-War Democrats (the largest party in Maryland), as well as Confederate sympathizers, and members of the Massachusetts militia enroute to Washington for Federal service. However, as Lincoln remarked to a peace delegation from the Young Men’s Christian Association, Union soldiers were neither birds to fly over Maryland, nor moles to burrow under it. The two cars returned to the President Street Station and the soldiers disembarked to the howls and jeers of the mob. Share. On May 13, Butler sent Union troops into Baltimore and declared martial law. Needham is buried in Lawrence, Massachusetts. On April 19, 1861, an angry mob with pro-secessionist intentions attacked US Army troops on the streets of Baltimore, an event known as The Baltimore Riot of 1861, or alternately as The Pratt Street Riot or even the more dramatic Pratt Street Massacre. In May, less than a month after the riot, General Butler and the 6th Mass. While the battle of Ft Sumter saw no deaths on either side, the Baltimore Riots saw the first deaths of the civil war. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the American Civil War. The cars were disconnected and pulled by horses down Pratt Street to Camden Station. Marshal Kane put his policemen between the two groups and escorted the troops to Camden Station, where they boarded the train and left Baltimore. As the war began, the city’s divided loyalties created tension. The Riot Maryland! Baltimore riot of 1861 is similar to these military conflicts: 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Timeline of Baltimore in the 19th century, President Street Station and more. And be the battle queen of yore, Congressman from Baltimore. Seven hundred “National Volunteers” of southern sympathizers rallied at the Washington Monument and traveled to the station to confront the combined units of troops, which unbeknownst to them were unarmed and had weapons unloaded.Kane’s city police force generally succeeded in ensuring the Pennsylvania troops’ safe passage marching south on Howard Street to Camden Street Station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. When Fort Sumter fell (without casualties) on April 13, the Virginia legislature took up a measure on secession. By that time Maryland was an occupied state, and the choice no longer existed. In 1863 Howard wrote about his experience as a political prisoner at Fort McHenry in the book Fourteen Months in the American Bastille; two of the publishers selling the book were then arrested. Someone fired a shot. The 8th Massachusetts arrived by ship at Annapolis on April 20. Baltimore Mayor George William Brown and new Police Marshal (chief) George Proctor Kane anticipated trouble and began efforts to placate the city’s population. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN Historical and Political Science HERBERT B. ADAMS, Editor History is past Politics and Politics present History.— References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore_riot_of_1861. To add the foregoing, an assembly elected in defiance of law, but claiming to be the legislative body of your State, and so recognized by the Executive of Maryland, was debating the Federal compact. March 20, 2011 On April 15th,1861, President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 troops in response to the rebellion that had commenced three days earlier when Confederate forces fired … The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to … Rise of Know Nothing Party; Baltimore riots named city "Mobtown." On April 17, the Sixth Massachusetts Militia departed from Boston, Massachusetts, arriving in New York the following morning and Philadelphia by nightfall. Avenge the patriotic gore THE BALTIMORE RIOTS, APRIL, 1861 By EDWARD G. EVERETT* A CCORDING to twentieth-century historians of the Civil War, Pennsylvania would not qualify as a border state, for today the term border state denotes slave states that remained loyal to the Union. Sometime after leaving Philadelphia, the unit’s Colonel Edward F. Jones received information that passage through Baltimore “would be resisted”. They had gone through the Baltimore Riot on April 19, 1861, as Massachusetts Militia. Within that period United States soldiers, while committing no offense, had been perfidiously attacked and inhumanly murdered in your streets; no punishment had been awarded, and, I believe, no arrests had been made for these crimes; supplies of provisions intended for this garrison has been stopped; the intention to capture this fort had been boldly proclaimed; your most public thoroughfares were daily patrolled by large numbers of troops, armed and clothed, at least in part, with articles stolen from the United States; and the Federal flag, while waving over the Federal offices, was cut down by some person wearing the uniform of a Maryland soldier. Notes - … On April 19, Major General Robert Patterson, commander of the Department of Washington (Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia), ordered Brigadier General Benjamin Franklin Butler, with the 8th Massachusetts, to open and secure a route from Annapolis through Annapolis Junction to Washington. If all this be not rebellion, I know not what to call it. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to Washington for Federal service. (Ironically, federal troops imprisoned the young newspaper editor in Fort McHenry, which, as he noted, was the same fort where the Star Spangled Banner had been waving “o’er the land of the free” in his grandfather’s song.) The Riot On April 19, 1861, only five days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the situation in Baltimore exploded into violence. The city was also home to the country’s largest population (25,000) of free African Americans, as well as many white abolitionists and supporters of the Union. 2400 East Fort Avenue All but two of the cars had been transferred when the crowd blocked the tracks with timbers and anchors. Knowing that there were secessionists in the militia ranks, the commander of the Fort accepted the help on the condition that the militia could come no closer to the Fort than the Catholic chapel a half mile from the Fort or he would fire on them. Kentucky declared its neutrality (although it would eventually join the Union’s side), and although Missouri seceded from the Union on October 31 and was later occupied, a Confederate government-in-exile existed in Arkansas and Texas. Citizens threw stones and bricks and fired shots at the soldiers. 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