, As of February 2020 the United Kingdom is the only former member state to formally undertake the process of withdrawing from the European Union. The European Union (EU) consists of 27 member states. This, together with the disproportionate representation of the smaller states in terms of votes and seats in parliament, gives the smaller EU states a greater power of influence than is normally attributed to a state of their size. So is Turkey one of the countries that has been granted membership into the European Union? The democratic repercussions of this have been described as "fax democracy" (waiting for new laws to be faxed in from Brussels rather than being involved in drafting them). ANKARA, Turkey (AP) — Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said Sunday that Turkey sees itself as a part of Europe, but he called on the European Union to “keep your promises” on issues such as the country’s membership bid and refugees. There is no provision to expel a member state, but TEU Article 7 provides for the suspension of certain rights. Valéry Giscard D’Estaing was the first to say it frankly in 2002: Turkey must never be a member of the European Union. The EU does not need shared borders with Syria, Iran and Iraq. 9 states allocate power to more local levels of government. In addition, bilateral agricultural agreements between the individual EFTA States and Turkey have been concluded which form part of the instruments creating the free trade area. In recent weeks, EU members have raised the prospect of sanctions against Turkey over its gas exploration missions in the eastern Mediterranean. Most states outside the Eurozone are obliged to adopt the euro when they are ready, but Denmark (and formerly the United Kingdom) has obtained the right to retain their own independent currency. Switzerland rejected membership of the EEA. On 23 January 2020, the Withdrawal agreement was ratified by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and on 29 January 2020 by the European Parliament. The Sun website is regulated by the Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO), Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed. Denmark has an opt out from the Common Security and Defence Policy; Denmark and Ireland have an opt-out on police and justice matters and Poland has an opt out from the Charter of Fundamental Rights.. However most negotiations are still dominated by the larger states. In 1959, Turkey became one of the first states to seek the establishment of relations with the then European Economic Community. Turkey, by land mass, is positioned 95% in Asia and 5% in Europe. Turkey's continued assistance in regional security initiatives, for example, will become all the more relevant as Russia and Iran work to expand their spheres of strategic influence, which interfere with Europe's objectives. The EU’s policy on Turkey is conditioned by the union’s principled approach to the rule of law and by the lingering memory of heavy Turkish interference in the domestic politics mostly of Germany and the Netherlands in 2017. " The situation of the bailed out countries (Greece, Portugal and Ireland) has been described as being a ward or protectorate of the EU with some such as the Netherlands calling for a formalisation of the situation. ISTANBUL, Nov 22 (Reuters) - Turkey’s President Tayyip Erdogan said on Sunday that Ankara sees itself as an inseperable part of Europe. , The national governments appoint one member each to the European Commission, the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Auditors. The country of Turkey is typically considered to straddle both Europe and Asia. Each member state is party to the founding treaties of the union and thereby shares in the privileges and obligations of membership. , EU integration is not always symmetrical, with some states proceeding with integration ahead of hold-outs. In contrast to other organisations, the EU's style of integration has "become a highly developed system for mutual interference in each other's domestic affairs". The most notable is the opt-out from the Economic and Monetary Union, the adoption of the euro as sole legal currency. One part of Istanbul lies in Europe and the other part lies in Asia, with the two sides divided by the Bosphorus strait. , There are several different forms closer integration both within and outside the EU's normal framework. "Brexit: European Parliament overwhelmingly backs terms of UK's exit", "The presidency of the Council of the EU", "The European Parliament: Historical Background", "Deal shows Merkel has staked out strong role]". 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